Monday, 22 April 2013

Celebrating Earth day.........

15 Interesting facts about Earth on the occasion of Earth day :-

1. The Earth- What’s in a Name?
Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Neptune. Notice how all planets of the Milky Way are named after Gods and Goddesses of Greek and Roman Mythology?
The word, Earth has Old Saxon and Germanic origins. It features an Indo-European base, “er” which in turn resulted in the natural formation of the words ertho and erde in Germanic, aarde in Dutch, and earth in English.
Nobody really knows as to who came up with the name, Earth as most ancient civilizations ultimately refer to the land and soil as Earth, the planet where all humans live in. This is one of the many Earth facts which will remain hidden or unanswered for now.
2. The Earth is Alive?
The earth isn’t just a place where living things can survive and thrive as it is postulated to be a giant living organism itself. The Gaia Hypothesis claims that the Earth is an organic system which has the ability to self-regulate in order to maintain life as we know it.
Studies are underway to prove that there truly is a system which connects the biological and physical processes that transpire among living creatures that inhabit the Earth. And with all the advancements in the field of Earth Science, we are closer to finding out if the Earth is actually a sentient, self-regulating living organism.
3. The Earth’s Scar
Andes from space
Andes from space
The Andes is popular to millions as it is known to be the largest and longest mountain range on Earth.
It is located along the Western part of South America featuring a length of about 4,300 miles and a width of 420 miles. It spans through seven counties namely Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.

It is quite impressive, but it is actually the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, majority of which is found underwater, that is the largest and longest on Earth. In fact, it is considered to be the largest geological feature of planet Earth, which is 6,200 miles long.
4. Explosive Fact
Another amazing feature of the Earth is that it has almost 500 volcanoes worldwide. About 80% of the Earth, that which is found above and below the surface, are made of volcanic soil.
5. Theia, The Twin
One of the most interesting facts about Earth is that it used to have a twin planet, named Theia. Some 4.5 billion years ago, a planetary body which was postulated to be large as the planet Mars, shared the same orbit with Earth.
A collision between Earth and Theia transpired soon after, which resulted in the formation of the Moon.
6. Earth, ever-moving
Global plate motion
global plate motion
A supercontinent will be formed 25 million years from now. This is due to the constant movement of the tectonic plates. The rate of movement differs from one continent to another. In the Pacific, the plates move faster at 4cm per year, while the rate of movement in the North Atlantic is at 1cm annually.
7. The History of Pollution
It was between the late 18th century and early 19th century that the Industrial Revolution boomed and flourished throughout developing countries across the globe.
Not only did it bring economic change to the scene, but environmental changes as well. More air, water, and land pollutants were introduced to nature. Natural resources started to be abused and depleted during this period, which ultimately resulted in the degradation of the environment in astronomical levels.
What can we do about it? It all starts with education – it is through understanding of the interesting facts about Earth’s remarkable qualities that we can encourage conservation and help us enjoy its wonders for generations to come.
8. The Color of Earth
The Earth is popularly dubbed as the Blue Planet. Astronauts who first went to space describe the entirety of Earth as blue. This is due to the fact that 71% of the planet is covered by bodies if water.
Blue Planet 
9. The Earth is Hot
Aside from the sun as Earth’s main source of heat energy, humans could theoretically survive without the sun’s heat as the planet’s inner core is hot enough to supply energy to its inhabitants.
It is estimated that the core temperature is between 5,000 to 7,000 degrees Celsius. It is just as hot as the sun’s surface too!
10. Unique Tectonics
Planet Earth is the only planet of the Milky Way which features tectonic plates.
11. Space Dust
Leonid Meteor Shower
Leonid Meteor Shower 
There are approximately 30,000 space particles and dust that enter the Earth’s atmosphere annually. Fortunately, the majority of this debris burns up when it enters the earth’s atmosphere, resulting in shooting stars instead of giant craters.
12. The Earth isn’t Round
The accurate description of the Earth’s figure is oblate spheroid. This means that it is spherical, but also flattened from its two opposite poles.
The rotating motion of the earth results in centrifugal force, which in turn causes the planet to retain its disk-shaped figure.
13. Water Matters
Although water has been detected in neighboring planets, it is only on Earth that water can be found across three states of matter namely solid, water, and air.
14. Longer Days Ahead
We have approximately 24 hours in a day, but it is expected that after about 250 million years, a day will last 1.5 hours longer due to the slower rotation of the Earth around its axis.15. The Brightest of them All
Although it is known that Venus is the brightest celestial body in the sky, Earth is comparatively brighter when observed from outer space. The factor which makes our planet the brightest among all the planets of the Milky Way is water.

Learning chemistry

One Mole :- One mole is the amount of a substance that contain as many particles or entities as there are atoms in exactly 12g (0.012kg) of the 12C isotope.

The mass of carbon-12 atom = 1.992648 X 10-23g
and the mass of one mole of carbon = 12g
so, the number of atoms in it = 12g/mol12C / 1.992648 X 10-23g/12C atom
                                           = 6.022 X 1023  atoms

And this number
=6.022 X 1023  atoms
is also known as AVOGADRO constant.

Learning chemistry

FORMULA MASS:- Some substances do not contain discrete molecules as their constituent units in such compounds positive and negative entities are arranged in a 3D structure. The mass of such substances calculated as formula mass.
for example :- formula mass of -
Atomic mass of Ca = 40u
Atomic mass of Cl = 35.5u
so the formula mass of CaCl2 = 40 + (35.5 X 2)
= 40 + 71
= 111u

Learning chemistry


The terms are as follows:-

MOLECULAR MASS:- Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements present in a molecule.
It is obtained by multiplying the atomic mass of each element to the number of its atoms and adding them together.

for example:- Molecular mass of -
glucose(C6H12O6) :-
carbon's atomic mass = 12u
hydrogen's atomic mass= 1u
oxygen's atomic mass= 16u
so molecular mass of glucose = (6 X 12)+(12 X 1)+(6 X 16)
= 72 + 12 + 96
= 180u